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 On the program: 
- 66th edition of the World Radio TV Handbook 2012 
- The radio echo phenomenon 
- Encyclopedia: radio countries from A to Z 
- Broadcast tips 
- DX mix 

In the first days of December 2011 the most popular handbook for radio listeners worldwide was released. It is an annual edition published in English under the title "World Radio and TV Handbook 2012". It is of the caliber of renowned guides such as the German-language "Sender und Frequenzen" and the English-language "Shortwave Frequency Guide", both edited and published in Germany. 
The current 66th edition of World Radio and TV Handbook 2012 includes the usual references about the world of radio broadcasting, presentations of new radio sets, additional lists and charts, and other useful data. The editors are located in Oxford, the United Kingdom, and the long list of co-authors features some of the best known radio listeners worldwide. The handbook which is released as a separate volume is accompanied also by a schedule of the radio broadcasts for the coming season beginning end-March on a CD-ROM. 
The World Radio and TV Handbook 2012 first appeared in 1947, when the editors and the publisher were located in Denmark. Its founder and first distributor was Mr. Olund Johansen, replaced later by Mr. Jens Frost. Its current editor is Mr. Nicholas Hardyman from the United Kingdom. 
Even the inaugural edition contained information about radio broadcasting in Bulgaria. Back then Bulgaria had two radio transmitters for short waves, of which only one was operational, with a power of 5 kW, according to the Handbook, and 3 kW according to the Bulgarian archives. On a frequency of 9350 kHz or 32.1 m short waves news broadcasts were carried out in 12 languages – in six Balkan languages to the countries in the Balkans, and also in French, English and Esperanto beamed to the world, and in Russian, Czech, and Polish to North Europe. In the late 1940s Karlo Lukanov was director of the Bulgarian radio. In those years Bulgaria had transmitters for short and medium waves. A report of the Communications Ministry reads that as of March 15, 1948, there were the following transmitters for medium waves: in Sofia on 767 kHz with a power of 15 kW, near Vakarel on 850 kHz with a power of 50 kW, in Varna on 1276 kHz and in Stara Zagora on 1402 kHz with a power of 600 W each. At that time the programmes from Sofia were broadcast under the name of Hristo Botev Radio Station from 6.30 to 8-30 a.m., from 12.00 to 2.30 p.m. and from 6 to 10.50 p.m. local time. The most popular programme was the central news bulletin that began at 8.30 p.m. The news for the Balkans in Romanian and Turkish was beamed on medium, waves. The radio stations in Varna and Stara Zagora had their local programmes, and retranslated also the programmes from Sofia. According to the World Radio TV Handbook, the radio in Sofia was sending back QSL cards ever since the 1940s to listeners abroad. In the next editions the information on Bulgaria expands in view of the increase in broadcasts for foreign countries. 

The Radioecho Phenomenon 

Radio listening is often accompanied by phenomena that worsen the quality of reception. Among those the more important ones are the deadzone, the fading and the radioecho. Radioecho is more visible with the higher frequencies of the short wave band, for example, the 16 and 19 m, but it is heard albeit seldom on the 41 m. There are two types of radioecho – world and circular. The former has not been studied sufficiently and occurs less frequently. It is characterized by the reception of the same sound two or more times in a row, with the second, third, etc. reception being delayed by the previous one by dozens of seconds. The circular echo is more common. The greater part of the skywave propagation is refracted by the ionosphere with little fading, and after a series of refractions from the Earth's surface, it can travel the globe one time or more. This happens when the Earth's atmosphere is in a particular state. The radio set can thus intercept a great many electromagnetic waves that have already travelled a few times round the Earth. And the sound is heard as numerous repetitions, or echo. It differs also in the distance travelled between the transmitter and the listener. If the second and the following signals have arrived via the short way, then we talk about short path echo, but if they have travelled the Earth before reaching the radio set, then we talk about long path echo. 
For example, on January 6, 2012 on a freqnecy of 7210 kHz at 05.45 a.m. some 100 km north of Sofia Radio Romania and China Radio were heard, both probably with short path echo. Seven different frequencies were observed from transmitters located in one and the same country, China, on December 30, 2011 during the English-language broadcasts of China Radio International. There was no radioecho neither from the transmission hub in Kashi on 15270, 15350, 17490 and 17750 kHz, nor from Urumchi on 17570 kHz, but a strong echo was heard on 15210 kHz from Kunming, and on 17690 kHz from Jinhua. The experts on radio broadcasting predict the possible emergence of radioecho, and try to avoid it, although it is being caused by a particular state of the Earth's atmosphere. 

Encyclopedia: radio countries from A to Z 

In our previous programme we covered in alphabetical order Afghanistan to Andorra. The next one is Angola, where short waves are used for local programmes and for programmes abroad, and recently there was news of a new transmitter for short waves. The short waves in Anguilla are related mainly to the Christian University Network radio. The only station beaming on short waves from Antarctica is the Argentinean station, while Argentine itself has transmitters for short waves for the country and abroad. Antigua and Barbuda and Aruba have broadcasts on medium waves. In Armenia medium waves are no longer used, but they have broadcasts to the world on short waves. It is there that one of the largest radio centres in the world for medium and short waves is located used by Radio Voice of Russia, Trans World Radio and Radio Liberty. In Ascension there is a radio centre of the BBC used also from other stations on short waves. 

Broadcast tips from New Year's Eve 

NEW ZEALAND: On January 31 Radio New Zealand was heard until 10.57 a.m. on 9765 kHz with songs, after which the broadcast switched to 15720 kHz with pips at 11 a.m. and the words "It's midnight" and a choir singing Auld Lang Syne. Next there was a phone call from a person hit by the earthquake in Christchurch. 

RUSSIA: Bad weather conditions hampered the reception of Russian stations on short waves, where they welcomed the New Year in at 12 p.m. in Kamchatka on 6075 kHz, in Magadan on 5940 and 7320 kHz, etc. but heard the speech of President Medvedev at 19.58 h on 5905 kHz and the national anthem at 20 h on January 31. 

AUSTRALIA: On January 31 the voices of a merry group in the studio of Radio Australia counted down the last seconds of 2011 and with a clinking of glasses welcomed the New Year in at 13 h on 9560, 9580 and 9590 kHz. 

DPR KOREA: On January 31 five-minute gongs from 14.55 h on 6251 and 6399 kHz of their Home Service in Korean followed at 15 h by an emotional speech of a woman reading and weeping days after the death of Kim Jong-Il. 

CENTRAL ASIA: Two similar ceremonies: long speeches from the presidents followed by the national anthems and folk songs in the first minutes of the New Year were heard on January 31 from Kyrgyzstan at 18 h on 4010 kHz and from Tajikistan at 19 h on 4765 kHz. 

AFRICA: On January 31 long speeches from the presidents before and after New Year were heard at 23 h on 6165 kHz from Chad and on 9705 kHz from Niger. Merrymaking, songs and salutes before and after the New Year were also heard at 21 h on 5010 kHz from Madagascar. 

Compiled by Rumen Pankov 
All times are in Universal Time Coordinated (UTC), all frequencies in kHz. 

In today's edition we shall introduce you to the first part of the winter schedule of radio stations broadcasting via BABCOCK transmitters: 

Radio Republica in Spanish 
0000-0300 on Sundays and Mondays on 9490 kHz Sackville 100 kW / 227 degrees to Cuba 

The Voice of Vietnam broadcasts, as follows: 
-on 6175 kHz Sackville 250 kW / 212 degrees to the eastern part of North America 
0100-0130, 0230-0300 and 0330-0400 in English; 0130-0230 in Vietnamese 

- on 6175 kHz Sackville 250 kW / 212 degrees to Central America 
0300-0330 and 0400-0430 in Spanish 

- on 6175 kHz Sackville 250 kW / 240 degrees to the western part of North America 
0430-0530 in Vietnamese 

- on 5955 kHz Moosbrunn 100 kW / 300 degrees to West Europe 
1800-1830 in English; 1830-1930 in Vietnamese and 1930-2000 in French 
2000-2030 on 6135 kHz Woofferton 250 kW / 75 degrees to Russia in Russian 
2030-2130 on 6175 kHz Dhabayya 250 kW / 315 degrees to West Europe in German 
2130-2230 on 7370 kHz Woofferton 250 kW / 105 degrees to South Europe in Vietnamese 

Adventist World Radio in Vietnamese 

0100-0200 Saturdays on 15445 kHz Taipei 100 kW / 250 degrees to South East Asia 

EDC Sudan Radio Service Darfur Program in Arabic broadcasts Saturday through Thursday, as follows: 
0400-0500 on 11800 kHz Dhabayya 250 kW / 245 degrees to East Africa - Sudan 
1600-1700 on 15500 kHz Skelton 300 kW / 125 degrees to East Africa - Sudan 

EDC Sudan Radio Service in Arabic has broadcasts to East Africa, as follows: 
0400-0500 on 13720 kHz Dhabayya 250 kW / 245 degrees 
1500-1530 on 17745 kHz Woofferton 300 kW / 126 degrees 

Radio Canada International 
-in Arabic to the Middle East 
0300-0330 on 5905 kHz and 0400-0430 on 7265 kHz Skelton 300 kW / 110 degrees 
-in Russian to Russia 
1700-1730 on 9555 and 11935 kHz Woofferton 250 kW / 70 and 78 degrees 
-in English to Central Africa 
1800-1900 on 9770 kHz Skelton 300 kW / 140 degrees 
-in French 
1900-2000 on 9510 kHz Skelton 250 kW / 177 degrees to North and Central Africa and 11845 kHz Skelton 300 kW / 195 degrees to North West Africa 

Radio Okapi to Central Africa broadcasts in French and Lingala, as follows: 
0400-0500 on 11690 kHz Meyerton 250 kW / 340 degrees 
1600-1700 on 11795 kHz Dhabayya 250 kW / 230 degrees 

Radio Damal / Voice of Somali People in Somali to East Africa broadcasts, as follows: 
0400-0700 on 15700 kHz Dhabayya 250 kW / 225 degrees 
1830-1930 on 11740 kHz Woofferton 300 kW / 122 degrees 
1930-2130 on 11970 kHz Dhabayya 250 kW / 205 degrees 

BBC World Service in DRM mode broadcasts, as follows: 
-to West Europe in English 
0500-0800 on 3955 kHz Skelton 100 kW / 121 degrees 
0700-0800 on 5875 kHz Moosbrunn 040 kW / 300 degrees 
0800-0900 on 5790 kHz Skelton 100 kW / 105 degrees 
0800-0900 on 5875 kHz Woofferton 100 kW / 114 degrees 
-to South Asia 
1400-1800 on 5845 kHz Nakhon Sawan 090 kW / 290 degrees in Hindi and English 

Radio Free Sarawak in Bahasa malay broadcasts 
1000-1200 on 17560 kHz Dushanbe 100 kW / 132 degrees to South East Asia 

Author: Ivo Ivanov, Frequency Manager of Radio Bulgaria 
English version: Radostin Zhelev 

SOURCE: DX Program January 13, 2012

Via Yimber Gaviria, Colombia

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